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Introduction to Money in cassava processing biz December 20, 2014

Posted by taiwojimoh in information marketing.

Cassava (Manioc espiculenta) is grown for its enlarged starch-filled roots, which contains nearly the maximum theoretical concentration of starch on a dry weight basis among food crops.
Fresh roots contain about 30% starch and very little protein.
It is rich in carbohydrates, calcium, vitamins B and C, and essential minerals.
However, nutrient composition differs according to variety and age of the harvested crop, and soil conditions, climate, and other environmental factors during cultivation.
Roots are prepared much like potato. They can be peeled and boiled, baked, or fried.
It is not recommended to eat cassava uncooked, because of potentially toxic concentrations of cyanogen glycosides that are reduced to innocuous levels through cooking.
In traditional settings of Nigeria, the roots are grated and the sap is extracted through squeezing or pressing with heavy stones and later suspended inside the river to detoxify it. The cassava is further dried or fried on clay pot or aluminum pot on fire made of wood or coal to make Garri, Fufu, Tapioca, and other local delicacies.
The roots are also processed in several different ways; they may be first fermented in water, sun-dried for storage or grated and made into dough that is cooked. Alcoholic beverages can also be made from the roots.
Young tender leaves can be used as a pot herb, containing high levels of protein (8-10% F.W.). Prepared in a similar manner as spinach, care should be taken to eliminate toxic compounds during the cooking process.
Cassava is a perennial woody shrub, grown as an annual crop.
It is a major source of low cost carbohydrates for populations in the humid tropics and its originated from Brazil.
The largest producer of cassava is Nigeria, followed by Brazil, Thailand, Zaire and Indonesia.
Production in Africa and Asia continues to increase, while that in Latin America has remained relatively level over the past 30 years.

Thailand is the main exporter of cassava with most of it going to Europe.
It is a staple food in many parts for western and central Africa and is found throughout the humid tropics.
The world market for cassava starch and meal is limited, due to the abundance of substitutes.
Cassava is famous for the presence of free and bound cyanogen glycosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. They are converted to HCN in the presence of linamarase, a naturally occurring enzyme in cassava. Linamarase acts on the glycosides when the cells are ruptured.
All plant parts contain cyanogen glycosides with the leaves having the highest concentrations. In the roots, the peel has a higher concentration than the interior. In the past, cassava was categorized as either sweet or bitter, signifying the absence or presence of toxic levels of cyanogen glycosides. Sweet cultivars can produce as little as 20 mg of HCN per kg of fresh roots, while bitter ones may produce more than 50 times as much. The bitterness is identified through taste and smell.
This is not a totally valid system, since sweetness is not absolutely correlated with HCN producing ability.
In cases of human malnutrition, where the diet lacks protein and iodine, under processed roots of high HCN cultivars may result in serious health problems.
Cassava is a tropical root crop, requiring at least 8 months of warm weather to produce a crop. It is traditionally grown in a savanna climate, but can be grown in extremes of rainfall. In moist areas it does not tolerate flooding. In drought areas it loses its leaves to conserve moisture, producing new leaves when rains resume. It takes 18 or more months to produce a crop under adverse conditions such as cool or dry weather. Cassava does not tolerate freezing conditions. It tolerates a wide range of soil pH 4.0 to 8.0 and is most productive in full sun
Cassava Cultivars (Clones)
Before the development of national and international breeding programs with cassava there were relatively few cultivars. This is because cassava is propagated as vegetative clones. Recent releases from breeding programs include clones with resistance to many of the major diseases and pests. Specific cultivar names are mostly regional, with the exception of introductions from international research centers, which carry with them an institutional code. This code is often retained as the name of the cultivar. Cultivar classification is usually based on pigmentation and shape of the leaves, stems and roots. Cultivars most commonly vary in yield, root diameter and length, disease and pest resistance levels, time to harvest, cooking quality, and temperature adaptation. Some clones require 18 or months of growth before they can be harvested. Storage root color is usually white. A few clones have yellow-fleshed roots.
Most clones were selected by farmers from chance seedlings in their fields. Each growing region has its own special clones with farmers growing several different ones in a field.
Production Practices
Cassava is planted using 7-30 cm portions of the mature stem as prop gules. The selection of healthy, disease-free and pest-free prop gules is essential. The stem cuttings are sometimes referred to as ‘stakes’. In areas where freezing temperatures are possible, the cuttings are planted as soon as danger of frost has past. The cuttings are planted by hand in moist, prepared soil, burying the lower half. When soils are too shallow to plant the cutting in an upright or slanted position, the cutting are laid flat and covered with 2-3 cm soil. Mechanical planters have been developed in Brazil to reduce labor inputs. Observing the polarity of the cutting is essential in successful establishment of the cutting. The top of the cutting must be placed up. Typical plant spacing is 1m by 1m. Cuttings produce roots within a few days and new shoots soon appear at old leaf petiole axes on the stem. Botanical seeds are used only for breeding purposes. Early growth is relatively slow, thus weeds must be controlled during the first few months. Although cassava can produce a crop with minimal inputs, optimal yields are recorded from fields with average soil fertility levels for food crop production and regular moisture availability. Optimal growth and productivity of the plant is related to its harvest index, root weight divided by total plant weight. The desirable indexes range from 0.5 to 0.7. Responses to macro-nutrients vary, with cassava responding most to P and K fertilization. Vesicular-Arbuscular (VA) and mycorrhizae benefit cassava by scavenging for phosphorus and supplying it to the roots. High N fertilization, more than 100 kg of actual N/ha may result in excessive foliage production at the expense of storage root development and a low harvest index. Fertilizer is only applied during the first few months of growth.
There is no mature stage for cassava. Plants are ready for harvest as soon as there are storage roots large enough to meet the requirements of the consumer. Under the most favorable conditions, yields of fresh roots can reach 90 t/ha while average world yields from mostly subsistence agricultural systems are 9.8 t/ha. Typically harvesting can begin as soon as eight months after planting. In the tropics, plants can remain unharvest for more than one growing season, allowing the storage roots to enlarge further. However, as the roots age, the central portion becomes woody and inedible.
Most cassava is harvested by hand, lifting the lower part of stem and pulling the roots out of the ground, then removing them from the base of the plant by hand. The upper parts of the stems with the leaves are removed before harvest. Levers and ropes can be used to assist harvesting. A mechanical harvester has been developed in Brazil. It grabs onto the stem and lifts the roots from the ground. Care must be taken during the harvesting process to minimize damage to the roots, as this greatly reduces shelf life. During the harvesting process, the cuttings for the next crop are selected. These must be kept in a protected location to prevent desiccation.
Processing of cassava roots
The shelf life of cassava is only a few days unless the roots receive special treatment. Removing the leaves two weeks before harvest lengthens the shelf life to two weeks.
Dipping the roots in paraffin or a wax or storing them in plastic bags reduces the incidence of vascular streaking and extends the shelf life to three or four weeks. Traditional methods include packing the roots in moist mulch to extend shelf life.
Dried roots can be milled into flour. Maize may be added during the milling process to add protein to the flour.
The flour can be used for baking breads.
Typically, cassava flour may be used as partial substitute for wheat flour in making bread. Bread made with 30 -50 % cassava substitutes has been baked in Nigeria and launched by the Agriculture Minister while 100% cassava bread has been achieved in the United States.
Fresh roots can be sliced thinly and deep fried to make a product similar to potato chips.
They can be cut into larger spear-like pieces and processed into a product similar to French fries.
Roots can be peeled, grated and washed with water to extract the starch which can be used to make breads, crackers, pasta and pearls of tapioca.
Unpeeled roots can be grated and dried for use as animal feed. The leaves can add protein to animal feed.
However, commercial processing of cassava require some machines such as-
-Cassava Grater
-Sedimentation Tank
-Drier or Fryer
-Pulp Sifter
-Chipping Machine
All these machines are available in the country while complex ones can be imported from foreign countries.
The economic importance of cassava
In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) cassava is mainly a subsistence crop grown for food by small-scale farmers who sell the surplus.
It grows well in poor soils with limited labor requirements.
It provides food security during conflicts when the invader cannot easily destroy or remove the crop, since it conveniently grows underground.
Cassava is usually intercropped with vegetables, plantation crops (such as coconut, oil palm, and coffee), yam, sweet potato, melon, maize, rice, groundnut, or other legumes.
The application of fertilizer remains limited among small-scale farmers due to the high cost and lack of availability.
Roots can be harvested between 6 months and 3 years after planting.
Apart from food, cassava is very versatile and its derivatives and starch are applicable in many types of products such as foods, confectionery, sweeteners, glues, plywood, textiles, paper, biodegradable products, monosodium glutamate, and drugs. Cassava chips and pellets are used in animal feed and alcohol production.
Cassava contributed more than 228 million tons to food production produced worldwide in 2007, of which Africa accounted for 52%.
In 2007, Nigeria produced 46 million tons making it the world’s largest producer.
Cassava is one of the most versatile crops in the world with as many as 86 derivatives such as cassava starch, Gerri, flour, flakes, fries, cracks, chips, ethanol, Gin etc.
Cassava yield is very profitable as 15 plots (1 hectare) will produce 30 tons of cassava tubers and ( 3 ) tons of processed cassava would yield ( 1 ) ton of processed Garri.
Cassava is, however, challenged by some diseases which lead to losses in food stock, food security and livelihoods of about half of tropical Africa and 300m consumers in Africa.
The diseases are the Cassava Brown Streak (CBD) and Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and are caused by viruses transmitted by
The White Flies Insects and stem cuttings from infected Plants.
High yield Cassava varieties-CMD and TMS have been developed and are now available at IITA at Ibadan as the latest research value additions their research bank.
Development of effective machines had also reduced crop losses by more than 70% and has had positive impact on women.The return on investment is between 30% and 40

Taiye Alabi
Pls, contact the above for more research, Logistics supports and finders service on cassava processing machines ( imported or locally fabricated.) or email jtaconsult2012co@yahoo.com



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