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Introduction to money in shopping bags biz December 20, 2014

Posted by taiwojimoh in information marketing.
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Packaging of products for take home is as old as humanity and with the discovery of POLYTHENE as a packaging material , it has been a case of the rise and rise of Polythene in the production of packaging materials.
Investment in Polythene is in low and high density raw materials e.g. LDPE, HDPE,
The production equipment needed is nylon extruder machine that is available in the country at affordable price.
The cost of establishing shopping bags manufacturing factory are between N1.4m for a big plant producing as many as 20000 pieces of nylon per day in ( 8 ) hours and N250,000 for a mini Plant that produces 5000 pieces in ( 8 )hours per day.
Investment in Polythene based shopping bags in Nigeria is very profitable for the following number of reasons—
1. Nigeria population is in excess of 150m and therefore presents a huge market for any product, shopping bags inclusive.
2. Production activities in Nigeria are on a very high scale with a GDP of $300b per year and products from these factories are package in nylon for customers cart away.
3. Agricultural activities in the country is also high and most the farm Produce are sold in the open market and packaged in nylon shopping bags e.g. Oranges, Ground nuts, Corn, vegetables , Garri, Plantain, Banana, etc.
4. They are very affordable to the generality of the people as they sold between N10 – N50 depending on their sizes, thickness and value addition such as branding and Graphics.
5. They are very light in weight and this is one of the main attractions of Polythene based shopping bags.
6. Nylon shopping bags are easily disposable by burning and do not constitute any environmental challenges to the neighbors and the people.
7. They are recyclable in a recycling plant and so resolve the fundamental challenges of availability of raw materials.
8. They also reusable at home as a cost cutting culture and thriftiness.
9. The raw materials for the production of nylon shopping bags are available in Nigeria Petrochemicals Plants in Kaduna, Warri, Port Harcourt, Eleme etc.
10. Nigeria has growing population demography and so the demand for these bags will be always on the increase.
In fact ,statistic gotten as far back as 2010 put the sale of shopping bags in Nigeria at 7 million pieces per day and producers of these low priced shopping bags are making as high as N500,000 per month .

Thank You and God bless you all
Taiye Alabi
08184932156 OR email@jtaconsult2012co@yahoo.com
PLS, contact the above for logistic supports and finders service.


Introduction to money in Video coverage biz December 20, 2014

Posted by taiwojimoh in information marketing.
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Video Recording is the process of recording images electronically and the (2) basic technologies are:
Analog recording translates an electronic image directly into varying patterns of magnetized metallic compounds on magnetic tape or disc, digital recording first processes an image electronically into information in the form of 1s and 0s:
The information may then be stored on a computer hard drive, on magnetic tape, or as a microscopic pattern on a plastic disc such as a DVD. High-definition versions of digital video (HDTV) recording are now widely used for professional television production. Video recording can be done for broadcasting, playback, editing, webcasting, or archiving.
The techniques used to record images in various video formats share some similarities with those used to record sound, and images and sound are usually recorded simultaneously for video recordings.
The production of video recordings also retains some general features found in motion pictures and still photography that use photographic film to record images photo-chemically.
Initial recording of a video image requires some form of video camera or a computer program that generates and records images.
A video signal can be recorded with an analog or digital device that receives the signal by antenna, through a cable, from a satellite receiver, or from a direct link to a video camera.
Video recordings typically are viewed with a television screen or a computer monitor. They may also be watched on a personal media device. Video images can also be projected onto a larger surface such as a movie screen. Videotape recorder/playback systems for home use are usually connected directly to a television receiver.
Unlike motion picture film, a video recording does not require processing, and so it may be played back immediately. This makes possible the so-called instant replay common to televised sporting events.
A wide variety of video recording formats exist. Most analog recording formats have become obsolete with increasing adoption of digital formats and technology. Digital recording has many advantages over analog recording. In principle, data in digital form can be copied or edited without losing information.
The data can also be easily manipulated with computer programs to alter images, add effects, or adjust color or brightness. By contrast, copying and editing analog video by rerecording degrades the signal.
However, when digital recordings are compressed some original data is deliberately left out. Compression makes the data easier to store, to send, or to view. Digital signals are much less affected by interference from outside radio or microwave sources.
Professional video recording that uses high-quality cameras and recording equipment is done for commercial and educational television production, for television advertising, and for motion-picture production. In addition, professional video recordings and broadcasts may be used within corporations or organizations. Large markets also exist for “direct to video” or “direct to DVD” products that are intended for home viewing only and are not distributed to theaters or for broadcast.
Home video recording of television broadcasts is typically done with a videocassette recorder (VCR), a DVD recorder, or a digital video recorder (DVR).
These devices can receive signals provided by antenna, by satellite dish, or by cable. Special devices may be needed to convert a digital signal into an analog signal for recording on a VCR, however.
DVD recorders and DVRs designed for standard video signals can only record high-definition video signals (HDTV) as standard video signals; special high-definition DVD recorders and DVRs are needed to record in HDTV. VCRs and DVD recorders can also record or copy from other sources such as home video cameras, video players, or files on computers.
DVRs have computer hard drives that can store many more hours of broadcast material than individual videocassettes or DVDs can. Some DVD recorders also have hard drives to record video material. A personal computer can record video material onto its hard drive with a special video capture card.
Portable video cameras and personal computers permit people to make and edit video recordings at home. Video recordings can also be created with digital video features on cell phones, digital cameras, and other portable personal devices.
Several digital video formats have been developed to produce, transmit, and view video recordings on personal computers and over the Internet. Webcasting and podcasting technology mean that video recordings from virtually any source can be available through a computer connected to the Internet, either for downloading or for immediate viewing using streaming video (video sent as small digital packets of data).
Web sites that allow individuals to post home videos and other video material have become very popular. However, unauthorized use of copyrighted material has led to some restrictions.
Television broadcasting over the Internet, known as Internet protocol television (IPTV), is also available. IPTV allows users to select programs for viewing on request, making “time shifting” video recording unnecessary.
Home video recording became possible in the late 1970s with the introduction of the videocassette recorder (VCR). The device could record video signals from an antenna, a coaxial cable, another VCR, or a video camera. Like the audiocassette introduced in the 1960s, the videocassette contained two rotating spools that allowed a standard length of plastic tape to be played, recorded on, stopped and started, and rewound. Unlike an audiocassette, a videocassette only played and recorded on one side of the tape. The plastic tape had a magnetic metal coating on the side that recorded. A videocassette tape could be played or recorded over many times, but could also wear out or break with excess use. Consumers could buy blank videocassettes for home recording and videocassettes with prerecorded content such as motion pictures. Different recording speeds allowed up to eight hours to be recorded on a videocassette.
Two incompatible formats of analog videotape were originally available: Sony’s Betamax and Victor Company of Japan’s (JVC) Video Home System (VHS). The VHS format eventually became standard for the home video market, in part because VHS tapes were the first to allow two-hour recordings and could hold a full motion picture. Although Betamax failed in the home market, the format (especially as Beta cam SP) was widely used for professional video recording. The VHS format remained popular for home video viewing and recording into the 1990s. A major market developed for prerecorded video cassettes of motion pictures and other video entertainment, often rented rather than purchased. Users could program a VCR to record television programs at the time they were broadcast for later playback and viewing, a practice called “time shifting.” Home video cameras (camcorders) were introduced in the 1980s. A number of incompatible formats were developed with different size tapes.
A small market developed in the 1980s and 1990s for high-quality video on a format called laserdisc (LD) or videodisc. A laserdisc was a double-sided disc about the size of a 12-in vinyl record. In this system the original video signals were encoded as tiny elliptical depressions in the surface of the disc. The information was arranged in a single long spiral that was read with a laser. The electronic signals were played back using analog technology. Laserdiscs could only play content created by the manufacturer and could not be used to record new material. However, laserdiscs could contain extra material such as commentary and foreign language sound tracks, as well as easy access to particular scenes.
The introduction of the DVD or digital versatile disc (originally called a digital video disc) in 1997 allowed consumers to enjoy high-quality video and sound along with the extra features possible with laserdiscs, but on a disc the size of an audio compact disc (CD). Like laserdiscs, DVDs are read by a laser, but technology such as digital compression and double layers of recorded data allows DVDs to hold large amounts of information in less space. Importantly, recordable DVD technology permitted consumers to easily make high-quality video recordings or copies. The popularity of the DVD format helped bring down the price of players and recorders. High-definition DVDs designed for viewing with HDTV equipment were developed in the early 2000s. However, players, recorders, and discs for the high-definition format were more expensive than those for standard DVDs.
The digital video recorder (DVR) was introduced in 1999 and allowed television broadcasts (typically from cable or satellite television) to be recorded onto a hard drive. The hard drive could hold more hours of programming than a VCR or DVD recorder. DVR subscription services connected to the Internet such as TiVo let viewers more easily record large numbers of television programs for later viewing. In addition, DVRs permitted viewers to automatically skip commercials and to pause or rewind live TV broadcasts. DVRs are now provided by some cable or satellite television services. Combined DVRs and DVD recorders allow users to easily make copies of programs recorded on the hard drive.
While the act of recording is very visible, all other supportive activities are invisible as they are done in the private dark room of the recording artist.
The activities start from soliciting for client’s job, hiring of camera, purchase of tapes and getting the actual date of events and finally actual recording.
After the recording, the activity shift to post-recording or what in professional parlance is called POST –PRODUCTION.

These are the activities done after the recording of the events in tape. It involves editing, creation of complete sound track, and addition of optical effects and are handled by studio Artists, sound engineers, Visual and Graphic Artists.
Post-production begins with the completion of filming and continues until the project is delivered to the clients for viewing. The two main activities of post-production are the editing, or assembling, of video footage and the creation of a complete sound track.
Editing may begin during production. In single-camera shoots, the film from each day is reviewed at a later time by the director, producer, and network in the order in which it was shot. These films, called dailies, are then broken down and assembled into scenes by the editors. The first full assemblage is shown to the director, who makes further editing changes and creates the director’s cut. Thereafter, the producer and the network make changes until a final cut is created.
The final cut is given to the sound department, which is responsible for preparing the music tracks, or recordings; sound effects; and dialogue tracks for final combination into one track. The final mixing of all the sound is called dubbing. During this period, the sound engineers will spot the music—that is, select the points at which music will be inserted—and musicians will write and record the music. Sound engineers also adjust dialogue recording for production quality and record new or replacement dialogue in a process called looping. Sound effects are also added at this time. The resulting dubbing session, which can take several days for a movie or just a few hours for a multiple camera tape production, can involve the combination of 5 to 25 separate sound tracks.
The final stage of post-production is the addition of optical effects, such as scene fade-outs or dissolves, insertion of titles and credits; creation of special visual effects, such as animations; and color correction.
The post-production process can take as long as eight weeks for a movie to three days for a situation comedy. Commonly, all optical effects, titles, and music are rolled in during the production of soap operas, game shows, or talk shows—greatly reducing post-production.
Video coverage is very popular in Nigeria, especially in Lagos where millions of people organize several events many of which need to be kept as memorable events for life.
The following events are among such events –
1. Weddings
Many would agree with me that wedding is the most memorable events among them as couples would keep the Tape, CDs/VCDs to show those who missed the wedding and even show their yet-to-be children the kind of wedding their parents organized and for women it is a memorable occasion of GREAT JOY that must be kept forever.
2. Burials
To organize a befitting departure party for our beloved parents and family members is a very passionate and valued social norm, not only in Nigeria but the whole of Africa and even in some economically and politically advanced countries of the world.
This explain while in Yoruba land, a lot of money is committed to burial activities every year ,it is also noticeable in Igbo land where burial activities is on a very high scale especially among the wealthy ones.
3. Child naming ceremony
This is the naming of newly born child by the parents through the assistance of the religion institution and is favoured by both Christians and Muslims.
It is another memorable event of high importance after wedding.
4. Birth days
This is the celebration of the day of birth by the people worldwide .It occurs once in a calendar year and so form another memorable event that are recorded and kept for future viewing and reference.
5. Graduation/Convocation
One of the memorable events of our life is the day we graduate from primary schools, colleges, and universities and other higher institutions as all these events occur once in our lifetime.
6. Seminar / Conferences/Educational CDs
The video coverage business has seen unprecedented patronage from seminar, conference and training Organizers who now sell the VCDs as part of their training packages as it give them great advantage and economics of scale as it can be mass produced and distribute to several thousands of participants.
7. House warming ceremony
It is a joyous achievement for somebody to build a house in his or her lifetime and it is even now more joyous to open the house with fun fare recorded and to be kept for life as well.
This ceremony cuts across all the nooks and crannies of the country and across all religions.
8. Agreements can also be signed under the full glare of the camera in contemporary Nigeria as it can serve as evidence in the law court in case of any unforeseen circumstances.
9. Wills and their witnesses can be captured by the camera and presented to the concerned family members as the authentic wish of the departed soul.
This process has resolved a lot of issues and controversy in wills contest by people who took advantage of the power of the camera to present the truth.
10. Religious activities on Tape and VCDs
This is a very huge video coverage activity in the country going by the preponderant influence of religion in our life. Every end of week, especially Sunday and Friday, religious sermons are captured on tape and VCDs which are later sold tom members in the Churches and Mosques and even sold in the open market at a profit for GOD.
11. Annual events.
It is very valuable to clubs, organizations, alumni, and families who meet once in year to deliberate of some fundamental issues affecting them –e.g.
-End of year town and village meetings.
-August meetings among women in the East.
-Shareholders meetings
-Elections of new officers
-New yam festivals etc.
The importance of video coverage in our life is, and can never be said to be over emphasized as some important dates, events and activities in our sojourning history are capture live on tapes and VCDs that can be stored for life.
It among others advantages-
1. It brings the past to our present by the recorded events.
2. It shows us the truth in an unambiguous manner
3. It shows live recap of past events and social activities.
4. It brings to us our pasts in MOTION.
5. It allow people who did not witness an event, occasion and history the opportunity to see live what they would have missed for life.

This business is almost perfect as it also has zero or very low marketing expenses as the business could be marketed by the Video recorder with his or her-
Ensure you deliver quality work to your clients from soliciting to Tapes or VCDs .Your video display must be near perfect as in visuals, sound, on the screen texts and translations, colours etc.
Ensure you arrive on time at events location and ready with your camera, tapes or CD plates and do your work with dignity and humbleness of a hired labourer and deliver the completed work on time as well.
Ensure that you are reliable as a person and as a video events recorder by fulfilling all your engagement promises to your clients.
Ensure your charges are very reasonable, affordable, and competitive as you are bound to face stiff competition from other cameramen in your community.

Be a person of integrity by telling and upholding the truth at all times even if, it may not be profitable for you to do so.
There are several reasons WHY one should engage in video coverage business apart from the salient point of profitability-
1. Population growth in Nigeria makes the business a growing one and confer huge business opportunities on the investor, for instance, there are more than 20m people living in Lagos State alone and if 10% of the people patronize this business we are talking of about 2m potential customers.
In fact, in a recent research conducted in IFO LGA, in Ogun State, showed a greater percentage of patronage i.e. about 15%.
2. The social life and engagements of the people support this business as millions of people love attending parties as shown in every end of week activities of the people.
The parties attendants who are also potential customers cannot be estimated, they are in millions.
3. The residents of Lagos and other urban cities in Nigeria can afford to pay for this business as it is one of their social tax syndromes.
4. There are many Hotel and Guest houses in Lagos and other major cities in Nigeria that need the services of video coverage and are willing to pay.
5. It is more or a less a perfect or ideal business as it-
-Has very low staff costs
-Has no debts or very low
-Has very manageable expense profile
-Has less sleepless nights and challenges
These are reasons why you should engage in video coverage in the EMBER months to make some cool cash for yourself and eventually establish yourself as an events recorder of note in your community.
This may be the beginning of good fortunes for you as it may transform you from an event recorder to a movie/film video recorder/Director/Producer.
You are also eligible to partake in our follow –up practical training in the first week of December, 2013 at a discount rate of N2000 for buying this eBook NOW!!!
New participants shall pay N3000 plus another N1000 for buying the hard copy of the eBook at the venue.
In the follow-up practical training in December, you will learn-
1. How to edit video coverage contents
2. How to convert old video tapes to VCDs.
3. How to insert texts and translate other languages to English on the screen…
To take advantage of the above, Order for a soft copy of this (22 pages) report by paying N1500 into a/c 3081716774 FBN, Isolo Ind. branch .
Text your teller reference numbers, Names, and Amount paid to 08184932156 or email to jtaconsult2012co@yahoo.com or call taiwo.

Thank You and God bless you as you come
Taiye Alabi

Introduction to money in ice blocks biz December 20, 2014

Posted by taiwojimoh in information marketing.
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Nigeria is a country located on the tropic ,all countries on the tropic have tropical weather and climate.
Nigeria have tropical climate with sharp regional variances depending on Rainfall .
Nigeria is a zone where warm ,moist air from the Atlantic converges with hot,and dusty air from the sahara known locally as HARMATAN .
Nigeria climate hovers between dry and raining seasons.
Temperatures in Nigeria are high throughout the year, averaging 25-28 c.
Dry season in Nigeria starts from October –March while Raining season starts from April to September.

This is the business of freezing water below zero degree and into negative degrees to turn it into hard mold of block that are sold to people ,traders ,hawkers to make their products cold, chilled and appealing to buyers who want to nourish their body with cold, chilled water and drinks.
The ice blocks are purchased by vendors of flavored drinks, juices, water, bottled drinks, and food joints.
Their biggest bulk customers are the Organizers of weekend parties, meetings, weddings, and events planners and their biggest retail customers are the millions of workers, artisans, technicians, and traders who thronged the urban centers and cities every working day as evident in the cities of Lagos, Aba, Onitsha, Kano, and Abuja.

-As exposed earlier on, Nigeria is located in the tropics which are characterized by climate swings between HOT and COLD seasons.
-There is so much traffic challenges in Nigerian cities, especially, Lagos,Aba,Onitsha,Kano that prompt the people to demand for cold ,chilled liquids.
-Erratic power supply from PHCN means that people at home will also buy cold and chilled drinks from elsewhere.
-Freezing protects and preserves the drinks, flavours , milk in these drinks.
-Freezing makes these drinks tastier and enjoyable.
-Cold and chilled drinks quench thirst faster than the ordinary.
-It is a business you can start with small capital and then nurture it to enviable status.
-It is a business you can start and do at home and then expand outside.
-It is an all year round business as our climate is averagely hot all the year.
Critical analysis of the ice blocks making business over several years revealed the following positive conclusions-.
1. It has a wider market base span across all the lengths and breadth of the country with Lagos identified as the largest ice blocks market in Nigeria.
2. It is very profitable when one considers the demographic advantages of appealing to both the old, middle age, young and even infants. i. e for a range of ( 5-60 years ) which harbor more than 70% of the population of 150m Nigerians excluding immigrants and visitors.
3. It can be sold and consumed on the move, a sort of Traffic business and in Lagos substantial quantities are sold and consumed during the inevitable traffic gridlocks on our roads every day.
4. It can be sold in social gatherings, events, and parties.
5. It can be sold in our educational institutions such as primary schools, colleges, and higher Institutions.
6. It can be sold in various Government and private hospitals in the country.
7. It can be sold to neighborhood restaurants that have no capacity to invest in freezers and fridges.
8. It can be sold to millions of construction sites workers on their sites.
9. It can be sold to millions of 7/11 neighborhood stores and shops that have on freezers or fridges.
10. It can be sold to millions of homes without freezers or fridges or who are facing power supply challenges.
11. It can be sold in various churches and mosques especially during religious gatherings, crusades, harvests, worships etc.
12. It can be sold in various motor garages and parks to commuters and transport workers.

The basic requirements for this business are –
-A shop/home/factory
-Deep freezers
-Commercial ice blocks molding machines
-A generator
-A car or bus for distribution and marketing
-Staff and manager if on a commercial scale.
Ice blocks molding machines are available in the country in
( 2 ) broad categories of locally fabricated and imported ones.
Their molds are in ( 40 ) ( 60 ) ( 100 ) ( 120 ) ( 200 ) production capacities and it take minimum of 12 hours for molds to be solid for market entrance.

These machines produce (2) types of ice block molds
-DRY ICE which is done in NYLON
-ANTI-FREEZE ICE which is done in containers and assisted by some chemicals that hastens freezing: Be very careful as this type deepfreezes faster than dry ice in nylon.
In fact, you are advised to go for the (100 ) molds locally fabricated machines for some reasons.
The costs of the machines is rated according to their molds capacity-
(100) =N500,000
(120) =N500, 000 – N600, 000
(132) =N750,000
The price of the molds in raining season are N50 and N100 for the big and small ones respectively while in dry season the N50 goes for N100 while the N100 goes for N150.
The profitability of the business is assured as a (100) molds capacity ice blocks molding machine gives you N5000 a day if you produced only the N50 mold and N10,000 a day if you produced the N100 mold and you are able to produce for a
full day of 24 hours YOU DOUBLE YOUR TAKINGS…and this is with only ( 1 ) machine ,imagine if you can have up to 5 machine, imagine making N50,000 a day from ice block molds alone .
Thank You for your interest on the above, I am very sure that you shall exploit the opportunities exposed in this write-up and join the league of people making MILLIONS of NAIRA from ICE BLOCKS MOLDING IN NIGERIA.

Thank You

Taiye Alabi
Lagos, Nigeria.
Pls, contact the above for logistics supports and finders service on ice blocks machines and other set-up issues or email jtaconsult2012co@yahoo.com

Introduction to money in Laundry biz December 20, 2014

Posted by taiwojimoh in information marketing.
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Laundry is the washing, drying and ironing of clothes while dry cleaning is the washing of clothes with the use of some specialized cleaning equipment such as WASHERS, DRYERS, and VACUUM CLEANER FOR SUIT and WOOLS with special chemicals.
The laundry and dry cleaning processes start with collection of the materials for washing from our collection centers or through our pick and wash outlets.
Tagging is the next process; it is done after collection of the clothes, checking for forgotten items, money and documents, and examine any serious defects in the clothes.
All forgotten items are kept with the Laundry Manager for eventual return to the clients who deposited the clothes.
Inspection is then done where by the clothes are further subjected to more serious checking for damages, stains and washing combinations.
The next stage is stains removals and washing where by tough stains are first removed and followed by washing and drying.
Packaging and Delivery is the last stage in laundry and dry cleaning and is done in big folded nylon or hang in nylon with a duplicate of the invoice for identification and balance charges.
In final delivery, customers show up with their original invoices, pay any balance of the charges and collect his or her clothes.

Laundry was done mainly by hand by housewives as far back as 1886 when women fetched a lot of water for laundry.
Laundry by hand involves the soaking, beating, scrubbing and rinsing of dirty textiles.
With –in- door plumbing, laundry is done in the house by housewives with water from pipes and inside water tubs.
The entire process would take a whole day of hard work including drying and ironing.
Washing by machines was developed as a way to reduce the manual labor and time spent on laundry.
It provides open basin or sealed containers with paddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing. The earliest machines were hand operated and made of wood.
It has now developed to the use of electronically powered machines with motors that work with electricity and with more of artificial intelligence functions and economy of usage such as modern clothes washers, vacuum cleaners for suits and wools, dryers, packagers and automatic delivery.
Technology has now made the laundry and dry cleaning of clothes and sheets very effective, efficient and enjoyable.
The use of washing machines, dryers, vacuum cleaners, computers and pressing irons ,tagging machine is now favored.
These machines are imported into the country and are available in Lagos and other major cities and towns.
The market for laundry and dry cleaning services in Nigeria is highly fragmented with small cleaning outfits that operate from small shops and some from their homes.
However, there are very few well organized, structured, and managed LAUNDRY FIRMS located in highbrows’ areas such as Ikeja, Surulere, Lekki and other urban and semi urban areas of the country.
In Lagos ,( LEKKI ) where this laundry and dry cleaning firm is to operate from ,garments care command about 10,000 clients while the market is calculated at 5% of corporate workers that dress well and always busy to do their laundry( 900,000 ).

Out of population figure of 18.5m people ,about 5% ( 900,000 ) are corporate workers.
I believe this figure is highly under given, because it took stock of only 5% of corporate workers of the population of Lagos and neglecting the remaining 95% of the population.
I am of the opinion that laundry and dry cleaning services among non-corporate workers is not less than 10%of the remaining population (18,500,000 -900,000)=17.6 m which came to around 1.7 customers unaccounted for as shown in the service poll conducted by jta consulting just before the commencement of this plan /study as about 15% of 1000 samples of service requests taken strongly agreed to patronize a laundry and dry cleaning firm if their services were –
1. Disruptions free
2. Devoid of damages to their clothes
3. Available at the end of week
4. Satisfactory and at affordable prices.
This is also shown in the patronage the local washer men /launderers are enjoying in Lagos especially during end of week engagements in social functions, churches, mosques, and casual visiting.
Taiye Alabi
Pls, contact the above for Logistics supports, finder’s service and a ready-made FINANCIAL INFORMATION on the above.

Introduction to hard wood export from Nigeria December 20, 2014

Posted by taiwojimoh in information marketing.
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Wood is the hard, tough trunk of trees that are used for fuel and construction purposes by humans since creation.
They are divided into ( 2 ),hard wood and soft wood ,however, the softness or hardness does not have any relation with the soft or hard nature of the tree.
Hard wood are from broad leaved trees ,have long continuous ducts leading through the trunk, while soft woods are from coniferous trees, they have no ducts, but have fluid which is transferred from cell to cell and contain considerable amount of resin with their ducts running parallel to the grain.
Hardwoods are the ones used for furniture and high grade flooring including decking.
Nigeria is one of the countries in the world blessed with wood in abundance and it was and is still a foreign exchange earner for the country.
Out of 92.4 million hectares of land Area, 31.3m of hectares are covered with wood, and out of 490 utilizable tree species only 100 are being utilized .
Woods are found in the southern rainforest and southern middle belt of the country.
The types of woods found in Nigeria are –Mahogany, Iroko, White or Red Apa, Digbo, Cedar, Omo, Eki, others are Afara, Mansonia, Abura and Obeche,

Wood is being used for various purposes such as for fuel, construction, paper, furniture, burnt to produce charcoal etc.
-Wood is a very durable substance and can last for hundreds ,if not, thousands of years and this explain why it is used extensively in building homes, bridged, deck slabs etc.
-Wood is a very strong substance with so much stiffness, density and humans so much rely on its long term usage at home, office, factories, schools etc.
-Wood has appealing appearance and very attractive and that is why it is the major choice of furniture makers.
-Wood contains some chemical constituents such as tannins, gums, resins, cellulose used in the chemical industry before the discovery of synthetic alternatives.
-Wood can be converted to liquid fuels through the process of hydrogenation.
-Wood, using destructive distillation, can produce such chemicals as Acetic Acid, Methyl Alcohol and acetone which are all used in the paint industry.
-Wood is also used to make electric poles, cable poles, and pallets in crates using factories, as culverts to cover drainage and for making bridges.

The treatment of wood before usage is called SEASONING, this because wood contains about one-third to 50% of water and so must be seasoned before application. It is done through drying in the sun or Air drying and in Kiln drying, while Air drying could take several months, kiln -drying takes days.
There are good reasons why this must be done, seasoned wood is lighter and easy to transport over long distance, it is prevent the decaying of the wood and finally increase its heating value.
Wood is also treated with Zinc Chloride, other chemicals and copper compounds to prevent fungi and insects attacks .
It can also be protected from harsh weather conditions by surface coatings, spraying, brushing, and dipping in chemicals
Nigeria depended on the export proceeds from her Agricultural resources such as Cocoa, Groundnuts, Rubber, Palm Oil, Palm Kernels, and timber (unprocessed wood).
Wood is still an export commodity in Nigeria and she is still earning some foreign currencies from the export of wood.
To export wood to foreign countries such as Europe, some technical requirements are to me met by the exporter.
-It involves the procurements of hardwood of various sizes from various saw mills in the country.
-Treatment or seasoning of the wood with chemicals to prevent insects and fungi attacks and permit durability.
-Sawing or cutting into required dimensions for export market
-Registration with NEPC- Nigeria Export Promotion Council
-Procurements of export contracts from abroad
-Provision of workshop and workers to treat and package the wood for export specifications.
-The wood must be free from knots and other deformities

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Introduction to Money in cassava processing biz December 20, 2014

Posted by taiwojimoh in information marketing.
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Cassava (Manioc espiculenta) is grown for its enlarged starch-filled roots, which contains nearly the maximum theoretical concentration of starch on a dry weight basis among food crops.
Fresh roots contain about 30% starch and very little protein.
It is rich in carbohydrates, calcium, vitamins B and C, and essential minerals.
However, nutrient composition differs according to variety and age of the harvested crop, and soil conditions, climate, and other environmental factors during cultivation.
Roots are prepared much like potato. They can be peeled and boiled, baked, or fried.
It is not recommended to eat cassava uncooked, because of potentially toxic concentrations of cyanogen glycosides that are reduced to innocuous levels through cooking.
In traditional settings of Nigeria, the roots are grated and the sap is extracted through squeezing or pressing with heavy stones and later suspended inside the river to detoxify it. The cassava is further dried or fried on clay pot or aluminum pot on fire made of wood or coal to make Garri, Fufu, Tapioca, and other local delicacies.
The roots are also processed in several different ways; they may be first fermented in water, sun-dried for storage or grated and made into dough that is cooked. Alcoholic beverages can also be made from the roots.
Young tender leaves can be used as a pot herb, containing high levels of protein (8-10% F.W.). Prepared in a similar manner as spinach, care should be taken to eliminate toxic compounds during the cooking process.
Cassava is a perennial woody shrub, grown as an annual crop.
It is a major source of low cost carbohydrates for populations in the humid tropics and its originated from Brazil.
The largest producer of cassava is Nigeria, followed by Brazil, Thailand, Zaire and Indonesia.
Production in Africa and Asia continues to increase, while that in Latin America has remained relatively level over the past 30 years.

Thailand is the main exporter of cassava with most of it going to Europe.
It is a staple food in many parts for western and central Africa and is found throughout the humid tropics.
The world market for cassava starch and meal is limited, due to the abundance of substitutes.
Cassava is famous for the presence of free and bound cyanogen glycosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. They are converted to HCN in the presence of linamarase, a naturally occurring enzyme in cassava. Linamarase acts on the glycosides when the cells are ruptured.
All plant parts contain cyanogen glycosides with the leaves having the highest concentrations. In the roots, the peel has a higher concentration than the interior. In the past, cassava was categorized as either sweet or bitter, signifying the absence or presence of toxic levels of cyanogen glycosides. Sweet cultivars can produce as little as 20 mg of HCN per kg of fresh roots, while bitter ones may produce more than 50 times as much. The bitterness is identified through taste and smell.
This is not a totally valid system, since sweetness is not absolutely correlated with HCN producing ability.
In cases of human malnutrition, where the diet lacks protein and iodine, under processed roots of high HCN cultivars may result in serious health problems.
Cassava is a tropical root crop, requiring at least 8 months of warm weather to produce a crop. It is traditionally grown in a savanna climate, but can be grown in extremes of rainfall. In moist areas it does not tolerate flooding. In drought areas it loses its leaves to conserve moisture, producing new leaves when rains resume. It takes 18 or more months to produce a crop under adverse conditions such as cool or dry weather. Cassava does not tolerate freezing conditions. It tolerates a wide range of soil pH 4.0 to 8.0 and is most productive in full sun
Cassava Cultivars (Clones)
Before the development of national and international breeding programs with cassava there were relatively few cultivars. This is because cassava is propagated as vegetative clones. Recent releases from breeding programs include clones with resistance to many of the major diseases and pests. Specific cultivar names are mostly regional, with the exception of introductions from international research centers, which carry with them an institutional code. This code is often retained as the name of the cultivar. Cultivar classification is usually based on pigmentation and shape of the leaves, stems and roots. Cultivars most commonly vary in yield, root diameter and length, disease and pest resistance levels, time to harvest, cooking quality, and temperature adaptation. Some clones require 18 or months of growth before they can be harvested. Storage root color is usually white. A few clones have yellow-fleshed roots.
Most clones were selected by farmers from chance seedlings in their fields. Each growing region has its own special clones with farmers growing several different ones in a field.
Production Practices
Cassava is planted using 7-30 cm portions of the mature stem as prop gules. The selection of healthy, disease-free and pest-free prop gules is essential. The stem cuttings are sometimes referred to as ‘stakes’. In areas where freezing temperatures are possible, the cuttings are planted as soon as danger of frost has past. The cuttings are planted by hand in moist, prepared soil, burying the lower half. When soils are too shallow to plant the cutting in an upright or slanted position, the cutting are laid flat and covered with 2-3 cm soil. Mechanical planters have been developed in Brazil to reduce labor inputs. Observing the polarity of the cutting is essential in successful establishment of the cutting. The top of the cutting must be placed up. Typical plant spacing is 1m by 1m. Cuttings produce roots within a few days and new shoots soon appear at old leaf petiole axes on the stem. Botanical seeds are used only for breeding purposes. Early growth is relatively slow, thus weeds must be controlled during the first few months. Although cassava can produce a crop with minimal inputs, optimal yields are recorded from fields with average soil fertility levels for food crop production and regular moisture availability. Optimal growth and productivity of the plant is related to its harvest index, root weight divided by total plant weight. The desirable indexes range from 0.5 to 0.7. Responses to macro-nutrients vary, with cassava responding most to P and K fertilization. Vesicular-Arbuscular (VA) and mycorrhizae benefit cassava by scavenging for phosphorus and supplying it to the roots. High N fertilization, more than 100 kg of actual N/ha may result in excessive foliage production at the expense of storage root development and a low harvest index. Fertilizer is only applied during the first few months of growth.
There is no mature stage for cassava. Plants are ready for harvest as soon as there are storage roots large enough to meet the requirements of the consumer. Under the most favorable conditions, yields of fresh roots can reach 90 t/ha while average world yields from mostly subsistence agricultural systems are 9.8 t/ha. Typically harvesting can begin as soon as eight months after planting. In the tropics, plants can remain unharvest for more than one growing season, allowing the storage roots to enlarge further. However, as the roots age, the central portion becomes woody and inedible.
Most cassava is harvested by hand, lifting the lower part of stem and pulling the roots out of the ground, then removing them from the base of the plant by hand. The upper parts of the stems with the leaves are removed before harvest. Levers and ropes can be used to assist harvesting. A mechanical harvester has been developed in Brazil. It grabs onto the stem and lifts the roots from the ground. Care must be taken during the harvesting process to minimize damage to the roots, as this greatly reduces shelf life. During the harvesting process, the cuttings for the next crop are selected. These must be kept in a protected location to prevent desiccation.
Processing of cassava roots
The shelf life of cassava is only a few days unless the roots receive special treatment. Removing the leaves two weeks before harvest lengthens the shelf life to two weeks.
Dipping the roots in paraffin or a wax or storing them in plastic bags reduces the incidence of vascular streaking and extends the shelf life to three or four weeks. Traditional methods include packing the roots in moist mulch to extend shelf life.
Dried roots can be milled into flour. Maize may be added during the milling process to add protein to the flour.
The flour can be used for baking breads.
Typically, cassava flour may be used as partial substitute for wheat flour in making bread. Bread made with 30 -50 % cassava substitutes has been baked in Nigeria and launched by the Agriculture Minister while 100% cassava bread has been achieved in the United States.
Fresh roots can be sliced thinly and deep fried to make a product similar to potato chips.
They can be cut into larger spear-like pieces and processed into a product similar to French fries.
Roots can be peeled, grated and washed with water to extract the starch which can be used to make breads, crackers, pasta and pearls of tapioca.
Unpeeled roots can be grated and dried for use as animal feed. The leaves can add protein to animal feed.
However, commercial processing of cassava require some machines such as-
-Cassava Grater
-Sedimentation Tank
-Drier or Fryer
-Pulp Sifter
-Chipping Machine
All these machines are available in the country while complex ones can be imported from foreign countries.
The economic importance of cassava
In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) cassava is mainly a subsistence crop grown for food by small-scale farmers who sell the surplus.
It grows well in poor soils with limited labor requirements.
It provides food security during conflicts when the invader cannot easily destroy or remove the crop, since it conveniently grows underground.
Cassava is usually intercropped with vegetables, plantation crops (such as coconut, oil palm, and coffee), yam, sweet potato, melon, maize, rice, groundnut, or other legumes.
The application of fertilizer remains limited among small-scale farmers due to the high cost and lack of availability.
Roots can be harvested between 6 months and 3 years after planting.
Apart from food, cassava is very versatile and its derivatives and starch are applicable in many types of products such as foods, confectionery, sweeteners, glues, plywood, textiles, paper, biodegradable products, monosodium glutamate, and drugs. Cassava chips and pellets are used in animal feed and alcohol production.
Cassava contributed more than 228 million tons to food production produced worldwide in 2007, of which Africa accounted for 52%.
In 2007, Nigeria produced 46 million tons making it the world’s largest producer.
Cassava is one of the most versatile crops in the world with as many as 86 derivatives such as cassava starch, Gerri, flour, flakes, fries, cracks, chips, ethanol, Gin etc.
Cassava yield is very profitable as 15 plots (1 hectare) will produce 30 tons of cassava tubers and ( 3 ) tons of processed cassava would yield ( 1 ) ton of processed Garri.
Cassava is, however, challenged by some diseases which lead to losses in food stock, food security and livelihoods of about half of tropical Africa and 300m consumers in Africa.
The diseases are the Cassava Brown Streak (CBD) and Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and are caused by viruses transmitted by
The White Flies Insects and stem cuttings from infected Plants.
High yield Cassava varieties-CMD and TMS have been developed and are now available at IITA at Ibadan as the latest research value additions their research bank.
Development of effective machines had also reduced crop losses by more than 70% and has had positive impact on women.The return on investment is between 30% and 40

Taiye Alabi
Pls, contact the above for more research, Logistics supports and finders service on cassava processing machines ( imported or locally fabricated.) or email jtaconsult2012co@yahoo.com